HI 453 Online Primary Sources (Historical Documents)

Updated: May 16, 2016 Documents are grouped by topic and generally appear in chronological order. You will use these primary sources for a variety of assignments. Learning to find, read deeply, analyze, and interpret such firsthand accounts is the primary task of the historian. You may wish to review the differences between primary and secondary sources.

Some of these documents contain Spanish words that you may not know. Try to use context to figure out the meaning. If that doesn't work visit your handy Online Spanish-English Dictionary. Plug in the word and you'll get a translation pronto. It will even pronounce some of the words for you!

Primary Sources for US-Latin American Relations

    Table of Contents

    lick a topic or scroll down to find the documents. Don't panic. You won't use all these documents.

    1. Online Collections of Primary Sources for US-Latin American Relations Do searches of these collections to find your own documents (PDF).
    2. Early Spanish Explorations
    3. Bilateralism & Unilaternalism 1776-1823
    4. Amistad Affair, 1830s
    5. US-Mexican War & Aftermath, 1840s--
    6. William Walker: Filibustering in Nicaragua, 1850s
    7. War Against Spain, 1898
    8. Defending US Intervention in Latin America 1890s-1920
    9. Criticizing US Intervention 1890s-1920
    10. Colombia, Panama, and the Canal 1903-16
    11. 100 Years of the Monroe Doctrine/ Pan-Americanism
    12. US Intervention and Interests in Mexico 1910-38
    13. Discrimination against Hispanics/Latinos in the US to 1960s
    14. US Fights Revolutions 1950s-80s
    15. Failed Bay of Pigs Invasion, Missile Crisis, Cuba 1960s
    16. Promoting Militarism or Democracy? 1970s-90s
    17. Plan Colombia and Human Rights 1990--
    18. Additional Human Rights Concerns 1990--
    19. Debates over US-led Trade Agreements, Globalization and Neoliberal Economics 1994--
    20. Latin American-led Initiatives 2005--
    21. Latino/Hispanic Culture & Politics since 1960

    Early Spanish Explorations of what is now the US Southwest and Florida

    The first two documents below come from Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca was shipwrecked in 1528 on what is now Galveston Island. He lived among America's native peoples for the next eight years, transcending enslavement to become recognized as a great spiritual leader. Cabeza de Vaca was the first European to explore what is now Texas and the Southwest. His account, La relacion, offers a remarkable historical portrait. It is also one of humankind's great adventure stories. The second link below reproduces the English translation of the original 1555 edition of La relacion, which resides at the Southwestern Writers Collection, Alkek Library, Texas State University-San Marcos.
  1. Excerpt from the journal of Alvar Nunez Cabeza De Vaca (1542)
  2. Full Account and Commentaries of Governor Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, of what occurred on the two journeys that he made to the Indies, 1550
  3. Coronado's Report to Viceroy Mendoza Sent from Cibola, August 3, 1540
  4. Coronado's Report to the King of Spain Sent from Tiguex on October 20, 1541
  5. The Journey of Coronado An account of the expedition to Cibola which took place in the year 1540, in which all those settlements, their ceremonies & customs, are described. Written by Pedro de Castaneda, of Najara.

    Bilateralism and Unilaternalism

  6. Convention for Indemnification of 1802 Between Spain and The United States
  7. Treaty with Spain for the Acquisition of Florida, 1819
  8. Monroe Doctrine, 1823
  9. Chile: Convention of Peace, Amity, Commerce, and Navigation with the US May 16, 1832
  10. Peru: Convention with Peru for the Satisfaction of Claims of American Citizens; March 17, 1841
  11. Argentina: Treaty for the Free Navigation of the Rivers Parana and Uruguay With the United States; July 10, 1853
  12. Argentina: Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation With the United States; July 27, 1853
  13. Bolivia: Treaty of Peace, Friendship, Commerce, and Navigation with the US; May 13, 1858
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    The Amistad Affair, 1839-42

    Murders? Pirates? Free people? A major conflict in US-Spanish-Cuban relations. Most of the links below include multiple documents. Select those you find most credible. Murders? Pirates? Free people? A major conflict in US-Spanish-Cuban relations. Some of the links below include multiple documents. Select those you find most credible and relevant.
  14. US vs. Amistad Opinion of the Supreme Court
  15. The Amistad Case, Smithsonian's Natural Portrait Gallery
    For the following two links, the full text of the documents appear at the bottom of the page.
  16. Letter from William S. Holabird, U.S. district attorney in Connecticut, that there was no legal basis for returning the Africans to Spanish authorities in Cuba, 1839
  17. John Forsyth, Martin Van Buren's Secretary of State, rejects a key argument in favor of the Amistads,1841
  18. Amistad Research Center, Tulane University
  19. The Amistad Revolt and Trial, Documents and History
  20. Mystic Seaport Amistad Site
  21. Primary Sources on the Amistad Case Scroll down to the primary source links from the National Archives and Records Administration. See also this chronology of the abolition of slavery in Latin America.
  22. Links to The Amistad Revolt and Trial, Documents and History

    US-Mexican War & Aftermath

    During this conflict, 78,718 American soldiers served, 1,733 died on combat, another 11,550 died of non-combatant causes,and another 4,152 suffered non-mortal wounds. James K. Polk During this conflict, 78,718 American soldiers served, 1,733 died on combat, another 11,550 died of non-combatant causes,and another 4,152 suffered non-mortal wounds.

    Searchable databases--do keyword searches to locate relevant documents

  23. Mexican-American War, Northern Illinois University Libraries
  24. 5 speeches by President James K. Polk, Inaugural address (1945) and 4 State of the Union addresses, 1845-48 Do keyword searches [browser find in page] of the speeches for Oregon, Texas, Mexico and related topics.
  25. Documents from Texas History, From Independence to Annexation
  26. US-Mexican War documents gathered by The Descendents of Mexican War Veterans

    Individual Primary Sources

  27. John O'Sullivan supports US expansionism, Manifest Destiny 1839, 1845
  28. Albert Gallatin's view on annexing Texas, January 9, 1845
  29. Congressional joint resolution to annex Texas, Jan. 20, 1845
  30. "A Foreigner in My Own Land": Juan Nepomuceno Seguin Flees Texas, 1842
  31. President James K. Polk, First Annual Message to Congress, December 2, 1845
  32. James K. Polk's Request for a Declaration of War
  33. Senate and Congressional Debates over the Mexican-American War
  34. "A Hungry Savage Look which was Truly Fearful": Samuel Chamberlain's Recollections of the Mexican War, 1846
  35. Maps, pictures, and documents from PBS series on the Mexican War
  36. General Persifor Smith's letter to Judge R.W. Nichols, describing the US victory in Mexico City, written in 1847
  37. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, ending the war, February 2, 1848 You might also wish to see the Library of Congress exhibit of actual pages from the treaty. Click on a page to enlarge it so that you can read the handwriting.
  38. Gadsden Purchase Treaty, acquiring additional Mexican territory, December 30, 1853
  39. Anglo views of Spaniards & Mexicans
  40. Treatment of Mexicans and Mexican Americans after the war
  41. David Saville Muzzey's popular 1911 history of the Mexican War, part of a school text titled "American History." Note his attitudes and viewpoint, especially about "Manifest Destiny." This text, with revisions, was still in classroom use as late as the 1940's.

    William Walker: Filibustering in Nicaragua, 1850s

    Historical Background: President Franklin Pierce opposed British settlement in Central America (British Honduras, not Belize) and supported US military action to keep that imperialist nation out of a region considered by Americans to be under their control [Monroe Doctrine.] Pierce recognized the dictatorship in Nicaragua established in 1856 by William Walker, an American freebooter [filibuster] who invaded the nation and began to introduce slavery. Walker hoped to gain Nicaragua's entry as a US slave state.

    "Pierce's act [of recognition] shocked foreign governments. On both sides of the Atlantic, it led to talk of war betgweeen the US an d the European powers in the Caribbean (Great Britain, Spain, and France). Below the Rio Grande, it eventally leg governments to forge the largest anti-US alliance in Latin American history." (Michael Gobat in American Historiacal Review, Dec. 21013, p. 1346).

    Walker's antics also angered railroad baron Cornelius Vanderbilt, who planned to build rail lines and a canal in Nicaragua. Vanderbilt pressured Pierce to deploy the US Navy to force Walker to "surrender" his control. Walker moved his forces to Honduras, where the British navy captured him and turned him over to the Hondoras. He was executed by a Honduran firing squad in 1860. See the link to his autobiography, "The War in Nicaragua," below. Thanks to Dr. Antonio de la Cova who gathered most of the documents below. See
    de la Cova's William Walker site for many more primary and secondary sources, especially newspaper accounts.
  42. The Navy's Cross to Bear-- William Walker (Military Affairs, Dec., 1975) Short overview article of Walker's filibustering (secondary source for background)
  43. History of US filibustering in the 19th century. 1858 newspaper article on filibustering. Walker's escapades appear toward the end.
  44. Pres. Franklin Pierce Proclamation 64 - Warning to United States Citizens Against Participating in an Unlawful Military Operations in Nicaragua December 8, 1855 Ironically and hypocritically, Pierce would recognize filibuster William Walker as president of Nicraguay on Nov. 10, 1856. Pierce's successor, Pres. James Buchanan would dispatch the US Navy to capture Walker (see documents below).
  45. Pres. Pierce on importance of Nicaragua, 1856
  46. Stout, Peter F. Nicaragua: Past, Present and Future (1859) See chapters XX-XXIII, pp. 192-245, on the Walker intervention
  47. Appleton Oaksmith correspondence to William Walker, Sept. 9, 1856
  48. Correspondence between the President of Nicaragua and US Navy Commodore Paulding in relation to the capture of William Walker and his command in December, 1857
  49. Correspondence in relation to the arrest of William Walker by the US naval forces under Commodore Paulding, Dec. 1857 to April 1858
  50. William Walker's own account, The War in Nicaragua (1860)
  51. Newspaper report by fellow filibuster on their activities in Nicaragua and Walker's death and burial

    The War of 1898 against Spain

    In this conflict, 306,760 US troops participated, mostly in the Army, with about 23,000 in the Navy. During the war, 385 soldiers died in battle, another 2,061 died from other than battlefield wounds, and another 1,662 suffered non-mortal wounds.
  52. de Lome Letter, written by Don Enrique Dupuy de Lome, Spanish Ambassador to the US, critical of US President William McKinley
  53. Teller Amendment, 1898
  54. Reports on USS Maine in Havana Harbor
  55. "Shameful Treachery": Hearst's Journal newspaper Blames Spain for Maine explosion [yellow journalism]
  56. Sample cartoons from Yellow Journalism press
  57. Heroism under fire: Captain C.D. Sigsbee, late commander of the USS MAINE, detailing the actions of Private William Anthony, USMC, after the explosion, and recommending him for promotion, NAVY DEPARTMENT, Washington, D.C., April 8, 1898.
  58. "Suspended Judgment": A Times Editorial on the Maine Tragedy
  59. Sounding the Depths: The New York Times and the Sinking of the Maine
  60. The Maine and the World: Sailing into History
  61. Better Late Than Never?: US Admiral Rickover Clears Spain of the Maine Explosion
  62. Lt. Colonel Theodore Roosevelt's report on the operations of the Rough Riders, including the Battles of El Poso, Kettle Hill, San Juan Hill, and Santiago, Cuba Camp Hamilton, near Santiago de Cuba, July 20, 1898
  63. "A Perfect Hailstorm of Bullets": A Black Sergeant Remembers the Battle of San Juan Hill in 1899 by Frank Pullen
  64. Treaty of Peace Between the United States and Spain, December 10, 1898
  65. Searchable database of documents published in the United States, Spain, and the Philippines, 1870-1925 a. The primary focus is the Spanish-American war and subsequent American governance (approximately 1898-1910). Documents in Spanish and English.

    Defending US Intervention in Latin America

    Mola, handmade textile of Panama
  66. White Man's Burden by Rudyard Kipling Poem that well expresses the white racism of the time
  67. A Defense of Intervention and the Recognition of Cuban Independence by Amos S. Hershey, 1898 Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 11 (May, 1898), pp. 53-80.
  68. "The March of the Flag," campaign speech of September 16, 1898, by Albert Beveridge US Senator from Indiana (1899-1911), and, fervent supporter of American imperialism.
  69. Senator Albert Beveridge defends the US right to conquer and rule the Philippines, 1900
  70. The Monroe Doctrine of 1823
  71. Theodore Roosevelt defends his polices in Latin America and the Caribbean
  72. Manifest Destiny, Continued: McKinley Defends U.S. Expansionism
  73. Rationale for Imposing the Military Government of Cuba by Gen. Leonard Wood, 1903 Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 21, Current Political Problems (Mar., 1903), pp. 1-30."
  74. President Calvin Coolidge on US Intervention in Nicaragua, 1925

    Criticizing US Intervention

  75. Platform of the American Anti-Imperialist League, 1898
  76. Debating US Actions in the Philippines
  77. Debating Imperialism, 1898 and the Aftermath
  78. Statement by the Anti-Imperialist League, 1899
  79. Cuban independence hero Jose Marti warns against US expansionism in Cuba, 1889 [photo: Cuban Independence Leader and Martyr Jose Marti]
  80. American Soldiers in the Philippines Write Home about the War
  81. Ruben Dario's poem "To Roosevelt" An anti-Roosevelt poem by Nicaragua's leading poet.
  82. Francisco Garcia Calderon (Peruvian diplomat), "Imperialism of Decadence", 1913 Criticizes US political, economic, and cultural imperialism in Latin America
  83. Bandits or Patriots?: Documents from Charlemagne Peralte Testimony on US occupation of Haiti, 1919
  84. "The People Were Very Peaceable": The U.S. Senate Investigates the Haitian Occupation" Testimony on US Marine occupation of Haiti, 1919
  85. "Un Colombiano con Sandino": U.S. Intervention in Nicaragua, 1920s Note: English translation appears below the Spanish original. Augusto Cesar Sandino

  86. The Rights of Small Nations in America: The Republics of the Caribbean by Oswald Garrison Villard, 1917 Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 72, America's Relation to the World Conflict and to the Coming Peace (Jul., 1917), pp. 165-171.
  87. Criticism by Victor Raul Haya de la Torre of US Actions in Central America
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    Colombia, Panama, and the Canal

  88. Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, US and Great Britain, April 19, 1850
  89. Theodore Roosevelt, an undelivered message to the US Congress concerning Colombia and the Panama Canal
  90. Panama Canal Act of 1902 to provide for the construction of a canal connecting the waters of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans
  91. Panama Canal Treaty, 1904
  92. Convention Between the United States and the Republic of Panama (1904) Another version
  93. The Effects of the Panama Canal on Our Relations with Latin America by John Holladay Latane, 1914 Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 54, International Relations of the United States (Jul., 1914), pp. 84-91
  94. Practical Relations with Latin America by Walter E. Edge, 1928 [comments on the Panama Canal and a possible Nicaraguan Canal] Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 138, Some Aspects of the Present International Situation (Jul., 1928), pp. 66-68
  95. 1912 video of building of the Panama Canal"Through the Canal Bottom" - Canal under construction / working trains, cranes and dredges filmed from the ground along with general scenes of the canal
  96. Time-lapse video of the Panama Canal locks in operation
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  97. 100 Years of the Monroe Doctrine/ Pan-Americanism

  98. Theodore Roosevelt's Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine & other pro-intervention speeches
  99. The Position of the United States on the American Continent-Some Phases of the Monroe Doctrine by Francis B. Loomis, 1903 Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 22, The United States and Latin America (Jul., 1903), pp. 1-19
  100. Attitude of the United States toward Other American Powers by Francis B. Loomis, 1905 Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 26, The United States as a World Power (Jul., 1905), pp. 21-24
  101. The Pan-American Conferences and Their Significance, speeches by L S. Rowe, Joaquin D. Casasus, Joaquim Nabuco, Ignacio Calderon, Joaquin Bernardo Calvo, 1906 Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 27, Supplement 17 (May, 1906), pp. 1+3-22
  102. The Monroe Doctrine at the Fourth Pan-American Conference by Alejandro Alvarez, 1911 Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 37, No. 3, Political and Social Progress in Latin-America (May, 1911), pp. 24-30
  103. The Fourth International Conference of the American States by Henry White, 1911 Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 37, No. 3, Political and Social Progress in Latin-America (May, 1911), pp. 7-15
  104. The South American View As to the Monroe Doctrine by Paxton Hibben, 1914 Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 54, International Relations of the United States (Jul., 1914), pp. 63-65
  105. A Pan-American Policy: The Monroe Doctrine Modernized by John Barrett, 1914 Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 54, International Relations of the United States (Jul., 1914), pp. 1-4
  106. The Present Status of the Monroe Doctrine by Colby N. Chester, 1914 Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 54, International Relations of the United States (Jul., 1914), pp. 20-27
  107. The Meaning of the Monroe Doctrine by Charles M. Pepper, 1914 Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 54, International Relations of the United States (Jul., 1914), pp. 113-118
  108. The Monroe Doctrine: A Solution of Its Problem by Philip M. Brown, 1914 Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 54, International Relations of the United States (Jul., 1914), pp. 119-123
  109. The Monroe Doctrine: A Solution of Its Problem by Philip M. Brown, 1914 Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 54, International Relations of the United States (Jul., 1914), pp. 119-123
  110. The Attitude of Europe toward the Monroe Doctrine by A. Maurice Low, 1914 Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 54, International Relations of the United States (Jul., 1914), pp. 99-106
  111. Germany and the Monroe Doctrine by M. J. Bonn, 1916 Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 66, Preparedness and America's International Program (Jul., 1916), pp. 102-105
  112. Misinterpreting the Monroe Doctrine by Harry T. Collings, 1924 Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 111, Supplement: The Centenary of the Monroe Doctrine (Jan., 1924), pp. 37-39
  113. A Century of the Monroe Doctrine by Ricardo J. Alfaro, 1924Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 111, Supplement: The Centenary of the Monroe Doctrine (Jan., 1924), pp. 24-31
  114. "To Abolish the Monroe Doctrine": Proclamation from Augusto Cesar Sandino, on US Marine occupation of Nicaragua

    US Intervention and Interests in Mexico

  115. James Creelman article, "President Diaz: Hero of the Americas," Pearson's Magazine
  116. Two commentaries on Porfirio Diaz and the Mexican Revolution Authors: Channing Arnold & Frederick J. Tabor Frost, 1909, and a later view by Victor Raul Haya de la Torre, Peruvian political critic.
  117. Plan of San Luis Potosi by Francisco Madero, 1910
  118. Emiliano Zapata's "Plan de Ayala," November 25, 1911
  119. The United States and the Mexican Revolution: Letter from Venustiano Carranza, 1915, "A Danger for All Latin American Countries"
  120. President Woodrow Wilson Speech Demands Peace in Mexico, 1915
  121. Zimmerman Telegram, secret message from German Foreign Secretary Arthur Zimmermann to the Mexican Government, 1917
  122. US Diplomatic Correspondence during the Mexican Revolution
  123. Avoid the Use of the Word Intervention": Wilson and Lansing on the U.S. Invasion of Mexico
  124. John Reed's "What About Mexico?": The United States and the Mexican Revolution
  125. The Reply to Mexico: Standard Oil Puts Forth Its Position Against Mexican Nationalization of the Oil Industry, 1938
  126. Not So Private Negotiations": Mexico Expropriates the Oil Companies, 1938

    Discrimination Against Hispanics/Latinos in the US

    Video materials
  127. PBS Latinoamericans videos [fall 2013] Click on lesson plans and activities to explore topics in Latino history and culture
  128. PBS Latinoamericanos videos [fall 2013] Full list of videos focused on topics, events, and individual biographies
  129. Mi historia Short videos submitted by Latinos on a wide range of cultural, personal, and political topics
    Text sources
  130. Timeline of Latino History
  131. I. Juan Cortina, Proclamation to Texans, September 1859 and II. Juan Cortina, Proclamation to the Mexicans of Texas, November 1859
  132. Guadalupe Vallejo, "Ranch and Mission Days in Alta California," Century Magazine, XLI (December 1890), pp. 189-92 From Digital History
  133. Puerto Rico at the Dawn of the Modern Age: Nineteenth- and Early-Twentieth-Century Perspectives This site is rich in a variety of primary sources. Explore it thoroughly.
  134. "Such Cases of Outrageous Unspeakable Abuse...": A Puerto Rican Migrant Protests Labor Conditions During World War I by Rafael Marchan, testifying at Fort Bragg, NC, 1919

    Sleepy Lagoon Case & Zoot Suit Riots, 1942-43

    At Sleepy Lagoon, a water reservoir in East Los Angeles, a young boy named Jose Diaz fell asleep on the road after getting drunk. He was either run over accidentally, or, as police charged, killed in a turf war between two rival gangs. Police rounded up and arrested 300 Chicano [Mexican-American] youths. Courts convicted 12 of murder and 5 of assault. All of the verdicts were overturned on appeal. The persecution of Mexican Americans in this case remained a black eye for law enforcement, the media, and the city of LA for many years to come. The following year Anglo Americans, including many servicemen, attacked Mexican-American youths in LA.

  135. The Sleepy Lagoon Case, prepared by the Citizens' Committee for the Defense of Mexican-American Youth, Los Angeles, 1942 Anti-Mexican-American sentiments, from Digital History. August 2, 1942"
  136. Firsthand accounts of the Zoot Suit Riots, June 1943, Los Angeles
  137. Newspaper accounts of the Zoot Suit Riots, 1943

    US Fights Revolutionary Challenges, 1950s--

  138. 15 Declassified CIA Reports on Soviet, Cuban, & Other Revolutionary Activities, 1947-1987
  139. 179 CIA National Intelligence Council (NIC) documents on suspicious activities in Latin America Search the documents
  140. Philosophy and Goals of the APRA Party (Peru) by Victor Raul Haya de la Torre
  141. Memo from the President's Assistant Special Counsel (Richard "Dick" Goodwin) to President John F. Kennedy on US actions against Castro's Cuba, Sept 1, 1961
  142. Memo From President John F. Kennedy to Secretary of State Rusk on Latin America's increasing importance to the US, Oct 29, 1963
  143. Alliance for Progress speech by J. F. Kennedy and critique by Colombian president Alberto Lleras
  144. A Program of Covert Action Against the Castro Regime This once-secret CIA plan details the measures President Eisenhower authorized in March, 1960, to undermine the Revolutionary government.
  145. What to do about the Trujillo dictatorship in the Dominican Republic Memo From the Cuban Task Force of the National Security Council to the President's Special Assistant for National Security Affairs (McGeorge Bundy), May 15, 1961.
  146. Concern over the Duvalier dictatorship in Haiti, following the assassination of Trujillo in the Dominican Republic Special National Intelligence Estimate, June 7, 1961
  147. Speech by Juan Bosch (December 10, 1962) Bosh (1909-2001) served briefly as president of the Dominican Republic from Feb-Sept 1963. Here he expresses his opposition to the US-supported dictator Rafael Trujillo, who had run the Dominican Republic from 1930 until his assassination in 1961. Notice the political context that he uses to explain Trujillo's rule.
  148. Criticism by Senator J. William Fulbright on US 1965 Invasion of Dominican Republic
  149. "History Will Absolve Me" by Fidel Castro, 1953
  150. Tengo (I have), a revolutionary poem by Nicolas Guillen
  151. Castro Speech of May 1, 2002 on pre-revolutionary conditions in Cuba versus the rest of Latin America
  152. Brief (50 second) video on Castro's attempts to export revolution
  153. Communism in the Americas by Roy R. Rubottom, Jr. (1958 anti-communism propaganda from the Eisenhower administration). Excellent example of the Cold War mentality. Che Guevara
  154. Che Guevara on Guerrilla Warfare, 1961
  155. Brief (50 second) video of Che Guevara's impact. He was killed in Bolivia on Oct. 8, 1967
  156. Criticism of US imperialism by two Nicaraguan revolutionaries, Augusto Cesar Sandino (1920s) and Omar Cabezas (1970s)
  157. Chile and the United States: Declassified Documents Relating to the Military Coup, September 11, 1973
  158. The CIA in Latin America
  159. 3 CIA Manuals for Latin America When you reach this CNN Interactive page, use the "Historical Documents" menu item on the middle right side of this page to find (1.) CIA "Freedom Fighter Manual" for Contra rebels fighting the Sandinistas, 1983 (2.) CIA Operating Guidance on Coup Plotting in Chile October 16, 1970 (3.) CIA Manual: Psychological Operations in Guerrilla Warfare

    Cuba: Bay of Pigs, Cuban Missile Crisis, 1961-62, and Beyond

    Bay of Pigs -
  160. Pre-knowledge: CIA expected Bay of Pigs invasion to fail Probably did not inform President Kennedy
  161. Postmortem: Inspector General's Report on the Bay of Pigs Operation - October 1961 Secret report of the CIA's many failures in planning and executing the Bay of Pigs invasion.
  162. Inspector General's Report on CIA website Fidel Castro and Che Guevara
  163. Nikita S. Khrushchev, Letter to President John F. Kennedy, Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962
  164. Cuban Missile Crisis, documents and photos
  165. 14 Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis
  166. Soviet Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962
  167. "Cuba's Fate Linked to the United States" A Special Washington Post Report
  168. Cuban Missile Crisis Summary
  169. Kennedy Administration and Cuba Volume X, Cuba 1961-1962; Volume XI, Cuban Missile Crisis and Aftermath
  170. Kennedy and Castro: Secret Quest for Accommodation Documents of the National Security Archive

    US Embargo against Cuba

  171. Criticisms of US policy by Lars Schoultz, policy expert & author of That Infernal Little Cuban Republic
  172. Victor Fleites Jr., The End of Cuba's Embargo University of Miami, 2009
  173. End the embargo against Cuba, Help the NC economy PDF, op-ed by Prof. Slatta based on June 2012 visit to Cuba
  174. Christopher Sabatini, Does the U.S. Embargo on Cuba Protect Human Rights? FEBRUARY 25, 2009

    Promoting Militarism or Democracy?

  175. Is Latin America Capable of Democracy? An essay by Victor Raul Haya de la Torre, 1955 Map of Western Hemisphere
  176. Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS), searchable database of presidencies from Kennedy through Carter Official documentary historical record of major U.S. foreign policy decisions and significant diplomatic activity. Search for country.
  177. US Support of Military Coup in Brazil, 1964
    US Presidents Nixon, Ford, and Reagan remained largely silent about abuses by military dictatorships, such as that in Argentina. Pres. Jimmy Carter (1977-81) stood in stark contrast to the others, making support for human rights the centerpiece of his foreign policy.
  178. US Support for the Argentine Military's "Dirty War," 1976
  179. US official Patrician Derian criticiizes Argentina's military for abuses and US for inaction on human rights abuses, 1978.
  180. US official Patricia Derian recalls actions of Argentina's military and US inaction in 1996 interview.
  181. US Ambassador to Argentina Hill criticizes US support for Argentina's military dictatorship, 1976.
  182. Confessions from a Torturer in Argentina's Military, part of the "Dirty War," 1976-83
  183. Firsthand account of the aftermath of the "Dirty War" in Argentina Authored by a former HI 216 online student [edited for length]
  184. U.S. Policy in Guatemala, 1966-96 Documents of the National Security Archive
  185. US Senate [Church] Select Committeee Reports 1975-76 Full reports [PDF] cover US assassinations of foreign leaders, covert actions, and more.
  186. Excerpts from US Senate [Church] Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities 1975-76 A critique of CIA, covert actions, paramilitary adventures
  187. Interviews with Guatemalan refugees
  188. Interview (Dec. 2003) with Ariel Dorfmann, who fled into exile to escape the Chilean military dictatorship in 1973
  189. NEW KISSINGER 'TELCONS' REVEAL PLOTTING AGAINST ALLENDE IN CHILE AT HIGHEST LEVELS OF U.S. GOVERNMENT Nixon Vetoed Proposed Coexistence with an Allende Government. Kissinger to the CIA: “We will not let Chile go down the drain.”
  190. RENDITION IN THE SOUTHERN CONE: OPERATION CONDOR DOCUMENTS REVEALED FROM PARAGUAYAN 'ARCHIVE OF TERROR' Paraguayan Archive continues to yield Evidence of Coordinated Repression among Military Regimes of the Southern Cone
  191. Dictator Augusto PINOCHET in Chile: A Declassified Documentary Obituary Records on former Dictator's Repression, Acts of Terrorism, U.S. Support
  192. U.S. SUPPORT FOR MILITARY DICTATORSHIP IN ARGENTINA Kissinger sought immediate support for the new military regime in spite of staff warnings on bloodshed. 22,000 people murdered or disappeared by military between 1975 and 1978
  193. ARGENTINE MILITARY BELIEVED U.S. GAVE GO-AHEAD FOR DIRTY WAR New State Department documents show conflict between Washington and US Embassy in Buenos Aires over signals to the military dictatorship at height of repression in 1976
  194. Audio interview with Alicia Partnoy, a prisoner during Argentina's Dirty War. She smuggled her memoir of the experience Little School: Tales of Disappearance and Survival out of the prison.
  195. CIA awards the Distinguished Career Intelligence Medal to Terry R. Ward, the highest-ranking CIA official fired in a 1995 scandal for failing to inform Congress about the CIA's ties to human rights abuses in Guatemala
  196. Documents & Video Testimony on Iran-Contra Scandal Extensive links and info.
  197. Documents on the Reagan-Bush Iran-Contra Scandal
  198. Final Report of Lawrence Walsh, Independent Counsel, on Iran-Contra Scandal [excerpts]
  199. Kerry Committee Report on Reagan administration complicity in contra drug running [aka Senate Subcommittee Report on Drugs, Law Enforcement and Foreign Policy, conducted 1986, published December 1988] Documentation of Official U.S. Knowledge of Drug Trafficking by the Contras based on info from Oliver North & Rob Owen of the Reagan administration [click on PDF symbols]
  200. Rebuttals from Presidents Reagan and Bush on Independent Counsel Charges in the Iran-Contra Scandal
  201. Policy recommendations of Nobel Peace Prize winner (and past president of Costa Rica) Oscar Arias
  202. Bolivian President Evo Morales Discusses US Policies, 2007
  203. Addicted to Failure: Primary Sources on recent US policies assembled by Dr. Brian Loveman

    Plan Colombia and Human Rights

    Since the 1990s, the US has given Colombia billions of dollars in military aid to fight against drug traffickers and leftist revolutionaries (FARC). These declassified documents raise questions about human rights abuses committed by Colombia military and paramilitary forces and about US knowledge or coverup of such actions.

  204. Declassified Documents Implicate Colonel, Army, in Civilian Killings, Disappearances Landmark Conviction in Colombia's Palace of Justice Case, First-Ever Criminal Sentence Handed Down in Infamous Army Assault
  205. The United States vs. Rito Alejo del Río: Ambassador Cited Accused Colombian General's Reliance on Death Squads "Systematic" Support of Paramilitaries "Pivotal to his Military Success"; Infamous General a "Not-So-Success" Story of U.S. Military Training
  206. "Body count mentalities" Colombia's "False Positives" Scandal, Declassified Documents Describe History of Abuses by Colombian Army
  207. Trujillo Declassified Documenting Colombia's 'tragedy without end' Documents Detail U.S. Concerns about Impunity in Major Human Rights Case
  208. Conspiracy of Silence? Colombia, the United States and the Massacre at El Salado Declassified Documents Highlight U.S. Concerns Over Role of Colombian Security Forces in February 2000 Paramilitary Killings
  209. War in Colombia: Guerrillas, Drugs and Human Rights in U.S.-Colombia Policy, 1988-2002
  210. U.S. INTELLIGENCE LISTED COLOMBIAN PRESIDENT URIBE AMONG "IMPORTANT COLOMBIAN NARCO-TRAFFICKERS" IN 1991 Then-Senator "Dedicated to Collaboration with the Medellín Cartel at High Government Levels"
  211. Paramilitaries as Proxies Declassified evidence on the Colombian army's anti-guerrilla "allies"
  212. DOCUMENTS IMPLICATE COLOMBIAN GOVERNMENT IN CHIQUITA TERROR SCANDAL Company's Paramilitary Payoffs made through Military. U.S. Embassy told of "potential" for groups "to devolve into full-fledged paramilitaries"
  213. Truth about Triple-A: U.S. Document Implicates Current, Former Colombian Army Commanders in Terror Operation Army Commander Montoya Assigned to Intelligence Unit Behind 'American Anticommunist Alliance,' Responsible for Bombings and other Violence
  214. Colombian Paramilitaries and the United States: "Unraveling the Pepes Tangled Web" Documents Detail Narco-Paramilitary Connection to U.S.-Colombia Anti-Escobar Task Force. CIA Probed Whether U.S. Intelligence Was Passed to 'Los Pepes' Terror Group
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    Additional Human Rights Concerns

    Oscar Arias
  215. Confessions from Argentina's "Dirty War," 1976-83
  216. US State Dept. Declassified Files on Argentina's Dirty War PDF documents
  217. 20 Cases of Torture described in Brazil "This is a not a pleasant exhibition, but it is a very important one. It consists of photographs and text describing twenty out of more than 500 documented cases of torture in Brazil when the Military ruled the country between 1964 and 1980. Brazil has punished no one for these crimes, and none of the victims of torture or their families received any compensation from the government for their losses."
  218. Human Rights Abuses by Salvadoran Military and Death Squads
  219. 2004 Amnesty International Report on Human Rights in Guatemala
  220. National Security Archive Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, Iran Contra Scandal, Oliver North documents, Guatemalan Death Squads, Richard Nixon ordering actions against Chilean President Salvador Allende, and much more. Click on country names under "Archive Projects" on the lower right-hand part of the page.
  221. Interviews with Guatemalan refugees
  222. Interview (Dec. 2003) with Ariel Dorfman, who fled into exile to escape the Chilean military dictatorship in 1973
  223. Expenditures on the Military in Latin America
  224. Human Rights Concerns in Latin America
  225. Amnesty International: 1997 Report on human rights in the Americas
  226. Human Rights Watch Americas, Human rights in Latin America
  227. School of the Americas/WHINSEC

    Debates over US-led Trade Agreements, Globalization, and Neo-Liberal Economics

  228. Some Economic Insights in a Time of Limited Vision [NOW!] Here are some economic concepts to help make sense of the documents and debates over globalization and economic policies. Excerpted from The Darwin Economy: Liberty, Competition, and the Common Good by Robert H. Frank (Princeton Univ. Press, 2011).

    US-led Agreements: NAFTA, CAFTA, FTAA

  229. 1993 op-ed on supposed benefits of NAFTA by Barbara Franklin Heritage Foundation
  230. Criticisms of NAFTA Public Citizen
  231. NAFTA's Economic Impact by Lee Hudson Teslik, July 7, 2009 Council on Foreign Relations
  232. Mexican Views of NAFTA
  233. Rethinking NAFTA's Environment and Labor Agreements
  234. NAFTA's Impact on North Carolina August 2002 analysis [read all 3 parts]
  235. Lessons from NAFTA for Latin America and the Caribbean, World Bank Pro-NAFTA commentaries
  236. Costs and Benefits of Globalization by Rajesh Makwana (2006)
  237. NAFTA's impact on Mexicco Sierra Club analysis
  238. NAFTA Should Have Stopped Illegal Immigration, Right? New York Times analysis, By LOUIS UCHITELLE, Feb. 18, 2007
  239. Immigration Is a NAFTA Problem. This Is Not Big News Analysis by Ellen R. Shaffer, July 13, 2010
  240. Another Revolution in Latin America: Who Will Win? pro-CAFTA analysis by Andrea Gash Durkin and Ricardo Reyes
  241. Official website of Free Trade Area of the Americas - FTAA Spanish acronymn: ALCA Area de Libre Comercio de las Americas
  242. Latin America: Between Populism and Imperialism Analysis of the current political and economic tensions in Latin America, critical of US policies and actions.
  243. Impact of Globalization on Latin America
  244. Critique of Neoliberalsim by Ronn Pineo

    Latin American-led Initiatives

  245. Position of the Venezuelan government in the fifth ministerial meeting of the WTO September 12th 2003, by Ramon Rosales, Minister of Production and Commerce
  246. Speech by President Hugo Chavez, at the opening of XII G-15 Summit March 1st 2004
  247. ALBA [Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America, ] : Bolivarian Alternative for Latin America and the Caribbean January 30th 2004, by Teresa Arreaza This document is a summary of information on the ALBA published by the Banco the Comercio Exterior (Bancoex).
  248. UNASUR, Union of South American Nations [Spanish Unión de Naciones Suramericanas] Created in 2008, inspired by and modeled after the European Union, UNASUR seeks to counterbalance US hegemony in the region. UNASUR seeks to develop regional solutions to ssues of democracy, education, energy, environment, infrastructure, and security, and to eliminate social inequality and political exclusion. Members states: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Panama and Mexico hold observer status.

    UNASUR succeeds the South American Community of Nations (Comunidad Sudamericana de Naciones--CSN), established by 12 South American leaders in the Cuzco [Peru[ Declaration of 2004. CSN combined 2 trade groups—the Andean Community and Mercosur, which continue to exist in their own right—with the additions of Chile, Guyana, and Suriname.
  249. UNASUR--Spanish-language website with news and group declarations
  250. CELAC fact sheet [PDF] Community of Latin American and Caribbean States
  251. ALBA Advances towards Alternative Economic Model, Pursues Anti-Imperialist Agenda by Rachael Boothroyd Feb. 2012, ALBA = Spanish acronym for Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America
  252. CELAC [Community of Latin American and Caribbean States] Facebook Page Read about the goals and aspirations of this new organization (Dec. 2011).
  253. The Creation of CELAC Demonstrates Latin America's Dedication to Multiple Forums with Little Future: A critique by Elvio Badinelli [Argentina] CELAC=33-member Community of Latin American and Caribbean States
  254. 2012 Declaration of the Foro (Forum) of Sao Paulo a meeting of progressive parties and organizations from throughout Latin America
  255. Critique of Global Capitalism by Pope Frances, Nov. 2013 PDF

    Latino/Hispanic Culture & Politics since 1960

  256. Farmworker movement Documentation Project, 1962-1993
  257. Cesar Chavez on discrimination against Mexican-American farm workers, Hearings Before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, U.S. Senate, 96th Congress, 1st Session, 1997 From Digital History
  258. "Unite and Overcome!" Interview with Activist and Educator Elizabeth Martinez Mexican-American writer, activist and educator Elizabeth "Betita" Martínez has been working for social justice for more than 30 years.
  259. Protest by a Chicano (Mexican-American) Activist, Reies Lopez Tejerina, 1969
  260. Interviews with Latino immigrants to North Carolina 2008 PDF Interviews begin on page 14 and run through page 65.
  261. My Immigration Story Firsthand accounts of experiences by immigrations in the US today, hosted by Raul Ramos y Sanchez
  262. Myths about illegal immigrants
  263. Corridos (Mexican protest songs) You may listen to and read song lyrics at the previous site. You may also view the lyrics without listening to the music
  264. Links to Latino Studies links, Rutgers Univ. Library
  265. Latino Cultural Heritage Digital Archives, California State University, Northridge
  266. Digital Latino Archives, University of California
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