US Diplomatic Correspondence During the Mexican Revolution
Events of 1911
Executive Office, State of Texas, Austin.
The attention of the people of Texas is respectfully called to the fact that for the purposes of procuring and maintaining amicable and peaceable relations between the Republic of the United States of America and the Republic of the United Mexican States, and the people thereof, a treaty exists, and is in full force and effect between the said two Republics, under the terms of which the liberties and properties of the citizens of the respective Governments are guaranteed protection under the flags of said Governments, respectively; except, however, such goods and properties as are defined and distinguished by said treaty as contraband, same being as follows, viz:
Cannons, mortars, howitzers, swivels, blunder-busses, muskets, fuses, rifles, carbines, pistols, pikes, swords, sabres, lances, spears, halberts, grenades, bombs, powder, matches, balls, and all other things belonging to the use of these arms.
Bucklers, helmets, breast-plates, coats of mail, infantry, belts, and clothes made up in military form and for military use.
Cavalry belts and horses with their furniture.
And, generally, all kinds of arms and instruments of iron, steel, brass, and copper, or any other materials manufactured, prepared and formed expressly to make war by sea and land, which said goods are not by said treaty protected from seizure when being transported and carried into either of said Republics in aid of, or for the use of, the enemy or enemies thereof.
Executive Office, State of Texas, Austin.
Attention is further called to the fact that Section 5281 of the United States Statutes provides that "every citizen of the United States within the territory or jurisdiction thereof, accepts and exercises a com-mission to serve a foreign prince, state, colony, district or people in war, by land or by sea, against any prince, state, colony, district, or people with whom the United States is at peace, shall be deemed guilty of a high misdemeanor, and shall be fined not more than Two Thousand Dollars, ($2,000.00) and imprisoned not more than three years.
And that Section 5282, of the United States Statutes provides that "every person who, within the territory or jurisdiction of the United States, enlists or enters himself, or hires or retains another person to enlist under himself or to go beyond the limits or jurisdiction of the United states with intent to be enlisted or entered in the service of any foreign prince, state, colony, district or people, as a soldier, or as a marine, or seaman on board any vessel of war, letter of marque or privateer, shall be fined not more than one Thousand Dollars, ($1.000) and imprisoned not more than three years.
And that Section 5286 of the United states Statutes provides that "every person who, within the territory or the jurisdiction of the United States begins or sets on foot, or provides or prepares the means for any military expedition, or inspires to be carried on from thence against the territory or dominion of any foreign prince, or state, or of any colony, state, district or people with whom the United States is at peace, shall be deemed guilty of a high misdemeanor, and shall be fined not exceeding Three Thousand Dollars, ($3,000.00) and imprisoned not more than three years.
The attention of the Governor has been called to the fact that there now exists in the United Mexican States, Military strife; and it appearing to be the duty of every citizen of the state of Texas, in good faith to strictly observed the neutrality laws, and refrain from encouraging, aiding, abetting or participating in any manner in violating either the letter or spirit of same.
AMERICAN CONSULAR SERVICE:
C. P. DIAZ, MEXICO.
SUBJECT: Conditions on both sides of the line separating America from Mexico.
November 2, 1911.
The Secretary of State,
Washington, D. C.
Sir: I have the honor to advise that El Pais of Mexico City, Mexico, of the 30th ultimo, says:-
"That it has received a letter from Zapata, the notorious Bandit, dated the 27th ultimo, at the town of Matamoros in the `Hot Lands' which, translated, reads, in part, as follows:-
"That he, Zapata, has had nothing to do with the Chiefs of the men who recently sacked, robbed, and committed other horrible crimes in the towns of the Federal District. That the crimes heretofore attributed to him occurred long before, and he has not since been connected with such matters. That greater Mexicans than he have committed still greater crimes than those to him imputed, but their time has passed and their record is history. That the Rebels now moving about in various parts in the Hot Lands are part of those under his command during the Madero Revolution; a part of those that were licensed or discharged. That when they were discharged he begged of them to keep the greatest possible order and to go to work soon as it could be found. That they were found out of work by General Reyes, who afterward provided them with arms. That he assures they will not come to the Hot Lands and that they, the Rebels who committed the depredations in the Federal District recently, are Reyistas. That he has been charged with the crimes committed by the Reyistas with whom he has had nothing to do."
The El Pais says that Zapata denies that the forces which assaulted Milpa Alta and other towns in the Federal District were Zapatistas, although he acknowledges that they were under his command formerly, and he affirms that they were
Reyistas. That the denial as well as the affirmation were gratuitous and absurd, as when the Rebels entered Milpa Alta and other towns that were attacked they cried out "Viva Zapata" and proclaimed that they were Zapatistas.
TELEGRAM RECEIVED 4
MEXICO CITY, MEXICO, DATED NOVEMBER 9, 1911. REC'D 10:00 P.M.
SECRETARY OF STATE,
NOVEMBER 9, 6 P.M.
SITUATION IN SOUTHERN MEXICO AT PRESENT MOMENT NOT REASSURING. IN PRACTICALLY ALL STATES SOUTH OF MEXICO CITY THERE IS WIDESPREAD DISORDER AND BRIGANDAGE AND DEFIANCE OF AUTHORITY. IN THE STATE OF OAXACA ALONE MORE THAN ONE THOUSAND PER SONS HAVE BEEN KILLED IN ENGAGEMENTS BETWEEN REGULAR TROOPS AND BANDITS DURING THE LAST TWO WEEKS. THE MOVEMENT SEEMS TO BE GROWING IN STRENGTH AND PRESENTS, SOME INDICATION OF ORGANIZATION AND DIRECTION. I FEAR THAT UNLESS THE GOVERNMENT ADDRESSES ITSELF ENERGETICALLY TO THE SUPPRESSION OF LAWLESSNESS THE MOVEMENT WILL EXTEND TO NORTHERN STATES. SO FAR I HAVE NO REPORTS OF ATTACKS ON OR INJURIES TO AMERICAN CITI-ZENS.
Events of 1913
FROM: MEXICO CITY DATED:FEBRUARY 2 3, 1913 REC'D 6 P. M. TELEGRAM RECEIVED
SECRETARY OF STATE, WASHINGTON, D. C. TWENTY-SEVEN FEBRUARY 23, 1 P.M.
MR. DE LA BARRA INFORMED ME LAST EVENING THAT THE GOVERNMENT INTENDED TO TRANSFER THE PRESIDENT AND VICE PRESIDENT TO THE PENITENTIARY WHERE IT WOULD BE POSSIBLE TO MAKE THEM MORE COMFORTABLE AND WHERE THEY WOULD BE IN SECURITY UNTIL THE PUB-LIC PASSIONS HAD SUBSIDED. THEY WERE ACCORDINGLY TRANSFERRED LAST NIGHT ABOUT ELEVEN- THIRTY AND EN ROUTE TO THE PENITENTIARY THE PARTY WAS ATTCKED, ACCORDING TO THE GOVERNMENT'S PUBLISHED REPORTS THIS MORNING, AND IN THE STRUGGLE WHICH FOLLOWED BOTH THE PRESIDENT AND VICE PRESIDENT WERE KILLED. PRESIDENT HUERTA IN A PUBLISHED LETTER EXPLAINS THE OCCURRENCE IN THIS WAY AND ALSO STATES THAT ALL THE CIRCUMSTANCES WILL BE MADE THE SUBJECT OF A RIGID JUDICIAL INVESTIGATION . MR. DE LA BARRA HOLDS A RECEPTION TO THE DIPLOMATIC CORPS TOMORROW. I SHALL ASK HIM TO SUSPEND IT UNTIL THE DIPLOMATIC CORPS CAN HAVE THE ADVANTAGE OF A FULL UNDERSTANDING OF THIS OCCURRENCE.
TELEGRAM RECEIVED CIPHER
FROM: MEXICO CITY, DATED FEB. 11, 1913 REC'D 11:30 P.M.
SECRETARY OF STATE, WASHINGTON, D. C.
FEBRUARY 11, 6 P.M.
IN VIEW OF THE SERIOUS AND POSSIBLY PROLONGED FIGHTING BETWEEN THE FEDERAL AND REVOLUTIONARY FORCES NOW TAKING PLACE IN THE HEART OF A MODERN CAPITAL CITY; A WARFARE WHICH IS VIO LATING THE RULES OF CIVILIZED COMBAT AND ENTAILING UNTOLD LOSS OF LIFE AND DESTRUCTION OF NON-COMBATANT PROPERTY AND DEPRIV-ING OF ANY GUARANTEES OF PROTECTION THE TWENTY-FIVE THOUSAND RESIDENT FOREIGNERS, I AM CONVINCED THAT THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES IN THE INTEREST OF HUMANITY AND IN THE DIS-CHARGE OF ITS POLITICAL OBLIGATIONS SHOULD SEND HITHER INSTRUC-TIONS OF A FIRM DRASTIC AND PERHAPS MENACING CHARACTER TO BE TRANSMITTED PERSONALLY TO THE GOVERNMENT OF PRESIDENT MADERO. ALSO TO THE LEADERS OF THE REVOLUTIONARY MOVEMENT.
IF I WERE IN POSSESSION OF INSTRUCTIONS OF THIS CHARCTER OR CLOTHED WITH THE GENERAL POWERS IN THE NAME OF THE PRESIDENT I MIGHT POSSIBLY BE ABLE TO INDUCE A CESSATION OF HOSTILITIES AND THE INITIATION OF NEGOTIATIONS HAVING FOR THEIR OBJECT DEFINITE PACIFIC ARRANGEMENTS.
DEPARTMENT OF STATE DIVISION OF LATIN-AMERICAN AFFAIRS MEMORANDUM February 12, 1913.
The division, of Latin American Affairs is of opinion that an instruction of firm, drastic, and perhaps menacing character recommended in Mr. Wilson's telegram, of February 11, 6 p.m., should not at this time be sent for the following reasons:
(a) Mr. Wilson states that if he had such an instruction he believes that he would possibly be able to induce a cessation of hostilities, so that the most, in his judgment, that such an instruction could do would be to put him in a position where he might possibly produce a cessation of hostilities.
(b) Such an instruction seems in the opinion of this division wholly undesirable unless the Government of the United States is prepared ultimately to make good any threat it might make. To do this would mean that the President of the United States should be authorized at once by Congress to avail of the Army and Navy of the United States to force compliance on the part of Mexico. Congress has not yet acted, and any action on its part at this time would probably be construed, no matter how mistakenly, as the first step in actual armed intervention.
(c) If Mr. Wilson were in possession of such an instruction and failed to bring about cessation of hostilities it would be humanly impossible for the United States Government to compel compliance with its demand until the solution of the dispute at Mexico City had been reached and hostilities indulged in.
(d) Moreover, even if the United States were in position, and the President had Congressional authorization, and was prepared to make good such a threat, the only possible action that could be taken by the United States Government would be armed intervention and the sending of military forces to prevent fighting in Mexico City, and we would be put in the position of ourselves initiating and carrying on hostilities in Mexico City, because the Mexicans most certainly would not come out to meet the United States troops, and we would thus be put in the position of ourselves doing what we forbid Mexico to do, and doing it for the purpose only of maintaining what we might believe to be a principal, while the Mexicans are fighting in Mexico City with the entire Government and Republic at stake.
(e) Moreover, the present Administration, if after proper preparation took the action recommended by Mr. Wilson would be in the position possibly of plunging the country in a war which would not have an opportunity to carry on, and which would have to be turned over to a new Administration which would have none of the responsibilities of the state of affairs found to exist when it comes into power.
DEPARTMENT OF STATE
DIVISION OF LATIN-AMERICAN AFFAIRS
This division feels that there now exists in the City of Mexico a situation which if solved by the triumph of General Diaz would result in placing some one individual in control of the Mexican Federal army and of unifying this element which the reins of Government would follow. If Madero triumphs the disorders will probably continue, unless the whole Diaz faction should be annihilated or captured as a result of its defeat.
It is believed that the. Government of the United States has done as far as it should under the circumstances, and that a state of alert preparedness is all that need at this time be maintained.
National Palace, Mexico City, February 14 1913. (Filed 5:55 p.m. at Mexico City)
Mr. W. H. Taft
President of the United States, Washington, D. C.
I have been informed that the Government over which your Excellency worthily presides has ordered that war ships shall set out for Mexican coasts with troops to be disembarked to come to this capital to give protection to Americans. Undoubtedly the information which you have and which has caused you so to determine is erroneous or exaggerated since the lives of the Americans in this capital will be in no danger if they quit the firing zone and concentrate themselves at certain places in the city, and in the suburban towns in which there is absolute tranquility and in which the Government can give them every measure of protection. If you will instruct Americans resident in the capital to do this, according to the practice established by one of your former messages, all danger to the lives of American and foreign residents will be avoided. With regard to material damages to property the Government does not hesitate to accept all the responsibility imposed upon it by International Law. I request then that your Excellency order your ships not to disembark troops since this will cause a conflagration with consequences inconceivably more vast than that which it is desired to remedy. I assure your Excellency that the Government is taking all measures to the end that the rebels in the citadel shall do the least damage possible and I have hopes that soon everything will be settled. It is true that my country is passing at this moment through a terrible trial and the disembarkation of American forces would only make the situation worse and through a lamentable error the United States would do a terrible wrong to a nation which has always been a loyal friend and will tend to make more difficult the reestablishment in Mexico of a democratic Government similar to that of the great American nation. I appeal to the sentiments of equity and justice which have been the rule of your Government and which undoubtedly represent the feelings of the great American people, over whose destinies you have presided with such skill.
Francisco I. Madero
Received and translated at White House 10:00 p.m.
Minister of Foreign Affairs.
Mexico, February 15, 1913.
My dear Mr. Lascurain-
Referring to our conversation this afternoon I beg to transmit to you here-with a copy of a note addressed by your Embassy in Washington, to the Department of State.
As this note is in absolute contradiction of the facts, I must beg you to be kind enough to send me a note indicating exactly what took place at the interview which we had on Friday morning.
The following is my version: That after some discussion relative to other matters and after you had expressed your deep concern relative to the existing situation, you remarked that you hoped there was no intention on the part of the American Government of landing marines or soldiers in Mexico. I replied to you that I had no control nor had. I made any representations to the Government at Washington on the subject, but that I could reasonably anticipate a situation developing here when our Government would be called upon by the European Governments to furnish protection for their nationals in the abnormal situation which exists here. I then indicated to you that you should be made to reduce the measure of danger to foreigners and to afford protection. You seemed to be impressed with the importance of my statements, and, as I have reason to know, you afterwards worked most diligently to secure some results in line with my suggestion.
As I regard the note sent from the Mexican Embassy as highly improper and its reflecting upon me and upon this Embassy most unjustly, I shall consider it a favor if you will be kind enough to send me a letter by the bearer of such character as would be in accordance with your knowledge of the facts.
Believe me, my dear Mr. Lascurain, I am,
Henry Lane Wilson
DEPARTMENT OF STATE, Washington
February 16, 1913.
Francisco I. Madero
President of the United Mexican States, Mexico City.
From your Excellency's telegram which reached me the 14th; it appeared that Your Excellency was somewhat misinformed as to the policy of the United States to-wards Mexico which has been uniform for two years, or as to the naval or other measures thus far taken which are measures of natural precaution. Period. The Ambassador telegraphs that when you were good enough to show him your telegram to me he pointed out this fact. Period. Your Excellency must, therefore, be aware that the reports which appear to have reached you that orders have already been given to land forces, were inaccurate. The Ambassador, who is fully informed, is nevertheless being again instructed to afford you any desired information. Period. Fresh assurances of friendship to Mexico are unnecessary after two years of proofs of patience and good will. Paragraph.
In view of the special friendship and relations between the two countries I cannot too strongly impress upon Your Excellency the vital importance of the early establishment of that real peace and order which this Government has so long hoped to see, both because American citizens and their property must be protected and respected, and also because this nation sympathizes deeply with the afflictions of the Mexican people. Paragraph.
In reciprocating the anxiety shown by Your Excellency's message I feel it my duty to add sincerely and without reserve that the course of events during the past two years culminating in the present most dangerous situation creates in this country extreme pessimism and the conviction that the present paramount duty is the prompt relief of the situation.
Wm. H. Taft
TELEGRAM RECEIVED FROM MEXICO CITY, DATED FEB. 17, 1913. REC'D 7:48 A.M.
SECRETARY OF STATE, WASHINGTON, D. C.
FEBRUARY 17, 1 A.M.
DEPARTMENT'S FEBRUARY 15, 12 MIDNIGHT. THE EMBASSY'S FEBRUARY 14, 2 P.M., FEBRUARY 15, 11 A.M., FEBRUARY 17, 7 P.M., FEBRUARY 15, 11 P. M., WOULD SEEM TO HAVE COVERED THE DEPARTMENT'S INQUIRY BUT IN AMPLIFICATION THEREOF I MAY SAY THAT IN THE INTERVIEW WITH MR. LASCURAIN HELD ON FRIDAY MORNING HE ASKED ME IN A PURELY AND FRIENDLY WAY WHETHER OUR GOVERNMENT HAD ANY INTENTION OF LANDING TROOPS IN MEXICO. I REPLIED THAT I HAD NO AUTHORITY IN THAT MATTER AND THAT I HAD RECEIVED NO INSTRUCTIONS THEREIN BUT THAT HE MUST KNOW THAT IT IS POSSIBLE EUROPEAN POWERS WERE BRINGING UPON THE GOVERNMENT (?) AND THAT IF THE SITUATION HERE GREW TO BE INTOLERABLE INVOLVING GREAT DANGER TO FOREIGN (?) MY GOVERNMENT WOULD NECESSARILY HAVE TO CONSIDER THE QUESTION OF OBTAINING THAT PROTECTION WHICH THE MEXICAN GOVERNMENT SEEMED UNABLE TO GIVE. IT WAS DISTINCTLY UNDERSTOOD AT THAT TIME THAT WE WERE TALKING MAN TO MAN AND ENTIRELY OUTSIDE OF OFFICIAL RELATIONS. ON NO OTHER OCCASION HAVE I MENTIONED INTENTIONS OF OUR GOVERNMENT EXCEPT UPON THE OCCASION OF MY VISIT WITH THE GERMAN MINISTER TO THE PALACE WHEN, AS RECITED TO HIM, MY FEB-RUARY 15, 11 P.M., THE PRESIDENT EXPRESSED THE HOPE THAT WE WOULD NOT LAND MARINES, REPLIED SIMPLY THAT I HAD NO INSTRUCTIONS AND NO AUTHORITY IN THE MATTER. THIS AFTERNOON I VISITED MR. LASCURAIN AND RECALLED THE CHARACTER OF OUR INTERVIEW TO HIM. HE AGRE-ED WITH ME IN EVERY PARTICULAR AND SAID THAT IF I WOULD ADDRESS A NOTE TO HIM HE WOULD REPLY IN ACCORDANCE WITH OUR UNDERSTAND-ING. I ACCORDINGLY WROTE SUCH A NO"T"E MARKED IT PERSONAL AND UNOFFICIAL AND DISPATCHED IT TO HIM BY MR. TENNANT ASKING FOR A REPLY NOT WITHSTANDING THE PERSONAL CHARACTER OF THE NOTE MR. LASCURAIN SAID THAT HE COULD NOT REPLY WITHOUT CONSULTING WITH THE PRESIDENT ASKING MR. TENNANT TO RETURN AT SEVEN THIRTY. MR. TENNANT WENT AT SEVEN THIRTY. MR. LASCURAIN, APPARENTLY MUCH EXCITED, ASKED FOR A FURTHER DELAY UNTIL MORNING.
TELEGRAM RECEIVED FROM: MEXICO CITY FEB. 17, 1913.
IN REGARD TO THE PRESIDENT'S TELEGRAM I MAY SAY THAT IT IS IRREGULAR, FALSE AND MISLEADING AND THAT HAVING INFORMED HIM SO I MAY ALSO INFORM THE DEPARTMENT TO THE SAME EFFECT. MY COLLEAGUES, WHO UNITED WITH ME IN SENDING A REPRESENTATION TO THE PRESIDENT RELATIVE TO HIS RESIGNATION, DESIRE ME TO EXPRESS THEIR ENTIRE DISAPPROVAL OF THE PRESIDENT'S TELEGRAM IN SO FAR AS THE SAME RELATES TO THE NATURE OF THEIR REPRESENTATION, AS IT WAS FULLY UNDERSTOOD BOTH BY THE PRESIDENT AND MY COLLEAGUES THAT THEIR REPRESENTATIONS WERE FRIENDLY AND UNOFFICIAL. THEY INTEND TO SO INFORM THEIR GOVERNMENTS. I SHALL GREATLY APPREC-IATE AND BELIEVE IT TO BE OF REAL IMPORTANCE THAT THE PRESIDENT IN HIS REPLY TO THE PRESIDENT OF MEXICO WILL SHARPLY REBUKE THE SCARCELY VEILED ATTACK ON THIS EMBASSY WHICH IS ENDEAVORING TO DO ITS FULL DUTY IN A TRYING SITUATION AND ALSO THAT THE NOTE OF MEXICAN EMBASSY MAY BE REBUKED AS FALSE, MISLEADING AND EN-TIRELY IRREGULAR IN THE DIPLOMATIC CONFERENCE EXCHANGES BE-TWEEN GOVERMENTS.
ALTHOUGH ONLY THE REPRESENTATIVES OF THE GREAT POWERS HAVE ACTED WITH ME IN THESE MATTERS WE HAVE THE SUPPORT OF THE ENTIRE DIPLOMATIC CORP.
FROM: MEXICO CITY, DATED FEB, 17, 4 P.M. REC'D 8:09 P.M, SECRETARY OF STATE, WASHINGTON. FEBRUARY 17, 4 P.M.
GENERAL HUERTA HAS JUST SENT HIS MESSENGER TO ME AGAIN TO SAY THAT I MAY ANTICIPATE SOME ACTION WHICH WILL ( * ) MADERO FROM POWER AT ANY MOMENT AND THAT PLANS WERE FULLY MATURED. THE PURPOSE OF DELAY BEING TO AVOID ANY VIOLENCE OR BLOODSHED, I ASKED NO ( * ) AND MADE NO SUGGESTIONS BEYOND REQUESTING THAT NO LIVES BE TAKEN EXCEPT BY DUE PROCESS OF LAW. I AM UNABLE TO SAY WHETHER THESIS. PLANS WILL COME TO ANYTHING OR NOT. I SIMPLY REPEAT TO THE GOVERNMENT THE WORD SENT TO ME WHICH I FEEL BOUND TO LISTEN TO AS IT SO INTIMATELY CONCERNS THE SITUATION OF OUR NATIONALS IN THIS CITY.
From General Huerta. Military Commander of Mexico (Translation)
His Excellency the American Ambassador, Present.
The President of the Republic and his Ministers are now in my power at the National Palace, as prisoners. I trust that Your Excellency will interpret this act of mine as the most patriotic manifestation of a man who has no other ambition than to serve his country. I beg Your Excellency to accept this act as one which has no further object than to restore peace in the Republic and to insure the interests of its children and those of the foreigners who have brought to us so many benefits.
I offer Your Excellency my greeting and with the greatest respect 1 beg you to bring the contents of this note to the attention of His Excellency President Taft.
I also beg you to convey this information to the various diplomatic missions in this city.
If Your Excellency would honor me by sending this information to the rebels at Ciudadela, I would see in this action a further motive of gratitude from the people of the Republic and myself towards you anti the always glorious people of the United States,
With all respects I am, Your Excellency's obedient servant.
Mexico, February 18, 1913.
General in Chief of the Operating Army and Military Commander of the City of Mexico.
TELEGRAM RECEIVED (VIA GALVESTON) CIPHER
FROM: MEXICO CITY, DATED FEB. 18, 1913, REC'D FEB. 19, 4:20 A.M.
SECRETARY OF STATE, WASHINGTON, D. C. TWELVE, FEB, 18, 12 MIDNIGHT,
APPREHENSIVE OF THE SITUATION WHICH MIGHT ENSUE AFTER THE DOWNFALL OF PRESIDENT MADERO I INVITED GENERAL HUERTA AND GENERAL DIAZ TO COME TO THE EMBASSY FOR THE PURPOSE OF CONSID ERING THE QUESTION OF PRESERVING ORDER IN THE CITY. AFTER THEY ARRIVED I DISCOVERED THAT MANY OTHER THINGS HAD TO BE DISCUSSED FIRST AND AFTER ENORMOUS DIFFICULTIES I MANAGED TO GET THEM TO AGREE TO WORK IN COMMON ON AN UNDERSTANDING THAT HUERTA SHOULD BE THE PROVISIONAL PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC AND THAT DIAZ SHOULD NAME THE CABINET AND THAT THEREAFTER HE SHOULD HAVE THE SUPPORT OF HUERTA FOR THE, PERMANENT PRESIDENCY, AFTER THESE POINTS WERE SETTLED BOTH LEFT THE EMBASSY TO PUT INTO EF-FECT COMMON ORDER WHICH THEY HAD AGREED UPON FOR THE PUBLIC PEACE. I EXPECTED NO FURTHER TROUBLE IN THE CITY AND I CONGRATULATE THE DEPARTMENT UPON THE HAPPY OUTCOME OF EVENTS WHICH HAVE BEEN DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY THE RESULT OF IT INSTRUCTIONS.
DEPARTMENT OF STATE, Washington February 20, 1913, 11 p.m. American Embassy, Mexico City. Twenty-three.
CONFIDENTIAL AND URGENT. You may informally and unofficially inform General Huerta that his telegram of February 18th to the President has been received.
While it is the general duty of this Government to conserve for the use on behalf of its own citizens and its national interests the influence it possesses, nevertheless General Huerta's consulting you as the treatment of Madero tends to give you a certain responsibility in the matter. It moreover goes without saying that cruel treatment of the ex-President would injure, in the eyes of the world, the reputation of Mexican civilization, and this Government earnestly hopes to hear of no such treatment and hopes to hear that he has been dealt within a manner consistent with peace and with humanity.
Without assuming responsibility you may in your discretion make use of these ideas in your conversation with General Huerta.
Espatado 11, Havana, Cuba. February 24, 1913.
Hon T. L.Reilly, M. C. Meriden, Conn.
My dear Sir:
I sent you a cable yesterday evening as follows: "Oppose recognition of Huerta-Diaz government." In cold blood this sounds rather abrupt or even arbitrary but I assure it was not so intended. l merely wished to say in the fewest practicable words that I am opposed to any recognition of the Huerta-Diaz government in Washington and than I wished to respectfully but strenuously urge you to use your influence to the same end. I hope that you wilt kindly excuse the brevity of the cablegram and lack of the usual rhetorical forms and accept instead of the cable the fuller form here enclosed now it has reached you.
I suppose it is of necessary to point out that the gang in charge of Mexico City at this moment represent no one but themselves and a handful of rich Mexicans who wish to terrorize their fellow countrymen in the good old Porfirio-Diaz style and reduce them to the medieval state that prevailed in Mexico up to two years ago. The Democratic party if it stands for anything at all should stand for popular government as distinguished from military despotism and aside from party considerations it is better from the American standpoint that Mexico fall into several different states, each more easily- dominated by the American government, than that the whole country fall again under military despotism. Madero failed because he lacked governing capacity and under-standing of the democratic ideal. It requires an abler man to lead democracy than imperialism and Madero was not that man but this is no reason why the United States should help to foist a new Diaz regime upon Mexico; No government can live three months in Mexico that does not received support from the United States in the way of recognition etc. to permit the passage of arms, etc. The United States having the power cannot escape the responsibility and I look to the democratic party to solve the problem along democratic and not despotic lines-which means no recognition for the assassins now in power in Mexico. They will not last long if their opponents are allowed to freely import arms. In the meantime Americans may need real protection in Mexico and it is up to Washington to see that they get it.
With best wishes for your continued political success.
I beg to remain,
Yours respectfully, J. Herbert Foster
Passengers on the train from Torreon, Coahuila, Mexico, arriving in C. P. Diaz, Mexico, the 1st instant, informed me that when they left Torreon the night of the 30th ultimo, they were on the floor of the coaches of the train to escape the rain of bullets that were fired from the guns of the Ex-Madero Revolutionists and the Federal soldiers, who evidently were having a fight for some reason the passengers could not ascertain before the train left Torreon. No one on the train was wounded.
The Border Press says that Madero was in Torreon on the 31st instant, and let that same day for Chihuahua. That same Press infers that the "Texas Rangers" are to have charge of the detection of the violation of the U.S. Laws of Neutrality instead of the U. S. Federal Officers, in the future. Insinuating that the U. S. Federal Officers have been found in-efficient Relative to this matter I have to again repeat that the Texas Rangers have yet to exhibit interest in the Business Texans consider belongs to the Federal Government, and in the Madero Revolution matter the Texans were very much interested in the success of the Revolutionists. So much so that they made much difficult the work of all U. S. Federal Officers on the Border, and they took active part in the celebration in the towns and cities on the Mexican side of the border line, held after the Madero Revolution succeeded. Should another Revolutionist appear who would or could appeal to the Texans, I fear for the efficiency of the Rangers in neutrality matters.
Two carbon copies of this dispatch are enclosed herewith, one will be sent to the Honorable Ambassador to Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico, and another to the Honorable Consul-General to Northern Mexico, Monterrey, Mexico.
2 carbon copies of this Dispatch.
I have the honor to be, Sir, Your obedient servant,