Revised Bloom's Taxonomy

Bloom's Taxonomy of Cognitive Levels [Revised]

Bloom's Taxonomy defines six different levels of thinking. The levels build in increasing order of difficulty from basic, rote memorization to higher (more difficult and sophisticated) levels of critical thinking skills. For example, a test question that requires simple factual recall shows that you have knowledge of the subject. Answering an essay question often requires that you comprehend the facts and perhaps apply the information to a problem. I wish to promote the analysis the subject matter, perhaps by having students break a complex historical process or event into constituent parts. I particularly want students to organize and present pieces of historical evidence it in a new way, to create or synthesize an argument. In order to do so, students must evaluate evidence, making judgments about the validity and accuracy of primary sources.

Knowing about the different levels of thinking can help you perform better on papers, tests, and other assignemnts. Often scores will increase if you include something in your answer, paper or project that shows you have analyzed, synthesized, or evaluated the subject matter. Put another way, avoid simple regurgitation. Studying the definitions and verbs below will help you think more creatively about and with greater understanding of the subject. This is a revision of the orignal taxonomy, updated in accordance with current pedagogy and learning studies. If you're unsure that some of the above boldfaced verbs mean, check this typology of essay verbs.

Critical Thinking Activity [arranged lowest to highest] Relevant Sample Verbs Sample Assignments Sample Sources or Activities
1. Remembering Retrieving, recognizing, and recalling relevant knowledge from long-term memory, eg. find out, learn terms, facts, methods, procedures, concepts Acquire, Define, Distinguish, Draw, Find, Label, List, Match, Read, Record 1. Define each of these terms: encomienda, conquistador, gaucho 2. What was the Amistad? Written records, films, videos, models, events, media, diagrams, books.
2. Understanding Constructing meaning from oral, written, and graphic messages through interpreting, exemplifying, classifying, summarizing, inferring, comparing, and explaining. Understand uses and implications of terms, facts, methods, procedures, concepts Compare, Demonstrate, Differentiate, Fill in, Find, Group, Outline, Predict, Represent, Trace 1. Compare an invertebrate with a vertebrate. 2. Use a set of symbols and graphics to draw the water cycle. Trends, consequences, tables, cartoons
3. Applying Carrying out or using a procedure through executing, or implementing. Make use of, apply practice theory, solve problems, use information in new situations Convert, Demonstrate, Differentiate between, Discover, Discuss, Examine, Experiment, Prepare, Produce, Record 1. Convert the following into a real-world problem: velocity = dist./time. 2. Experiment with batteries and bulbs to create circuits. Collection of items, diary, photographs, sculpture, illustration
4. Analyzing Breaking material into constituent parts, determining how the parts relate to one another and to an overall structure or purpose through differentiating, organizing, and attributing. Take concepts apart, break them down, analyze structure, recognize assumptions and poor logic, evaluate relevancy Classify, Determine, Discriminate, Form generalizations, Put into categories, Illustrate, Select, Survey, Take apart, Transform 1. Illustrate examples of two earthquake types. 2. Dissect a crayfish and examine the body parts. Graph, survey, diagram, chart, questionnaire, report
5. Evaluating Making judgments based on criteria and standards through checking and critiquing. Set standards, judge using standards, evidence, rubrics, accept or reject on basis of criteria Argue, Award, Critique, Defend, Interpret, Judge, Measure, Select, Test, Verify 1. Defend or negate the statement: "Nature takes care of itself." 2. Judge the value of requiring students to take earth science. Letters, group with discussion panel, court trial, survey, self-evaluation, value, allusions
6. Creating Putting elements together to form a coherent or functional whole; reorganizing elements into a new pattern or structure through generating, planning, or producing. Put things togther; bring together various parts; write theme, present speech, plan experiment, put information together in a new & creative way Synthesize, Arrange, Blend, Create, Deduce, Devise, Organize, Plan, Present, Rearrange, Rewrite 1. Create a demonstration to show various chemical properties. 2. Devise a method to teach others about magnetism. Article, radio show, video, puppet show, inventions, poetry, short story

Sources: Revised Bloom's Taxonomy site, Mary Forehand, University of Georgia
Revised Bloom's Taxonomy site, Richard C. Overbaugh & Lynn Schultz, Old Dominion University