Bloom's Taxonomy of Cognitive Levels [Revised]
Bloom's Taxonomy defines six different levels of
thinking. The levels build in increasing order of
difficulty from basic, rote memorization to higher (more difficult
levels of critical thinking skills. For example, a test question that
requires simple factual recall shows that you have knowledge
of the subject. Answering an essay question often requires that
you comprehend the facts and perhaps apply
the information to a problem. I wish to promote the analysis the
perhaps by having students break a complex historical process or event
into constituent parts. I particularly want students to organize and
pieces of historical evidence it
create or synthesize an argument. In order to do so, students
must evaluate evidence,
making judgments about the validity and accuracy of primary sources.
Knowing about the different levels of thinking can help you
perform better on papers, tests, and other assignemnts. Often scores will
increase if you include something in your answer, paper or
project that shows you have analyzed, synthesized,
or evaluated the subject matter. Put another way, avoid simple regurgitation. Studying the
definitions and verbs below will help you think more creatively about and with greater understanding of the subject. This is a revision of the orignal taxonomy, updated in accordance with current pedagogy and learning studies. If you're unsure that some of the above boldfaced verbs mean, check this typology of essay verbs.
| Critical Thinking Activity [arranged lowest to highest]
|| Relevant Sample Verbs
||Sample Sources or Activities
| 1. Remembering
Retrieving, recognizing, and recalling relevant knowledge from long-term memory, eg. find out, learn terms, facts, methods, procedures, concepts
||Acquire, Define, Distinguish, Draw,
Find, Label, List, Match, Read, Record
||1. Define each of these
terms: encomienda, conquistador, gaucho 2.
What was the Amistad?
||Written records, films, videos, models, events, media, diagrams, books.
| 2. Understanding
Constructing meaning from oral, written, and graphic messages through interpreting, exemplifying, classifying, summarizing, inferring, comparing, and explaining. Understand uses and implications of terms, facts,
methods, procedures, concepts
||Compare, Demonstrate, Differentiate,
Fill in, Find, Group, Outline, Predict, Represent, Trace
||1. Compare an
invertebrate with a vertebrate. 2. Use a set of
symbols and graphics to draw the water cycle.
|| Trends, consequences, tables, cartoons
Carrying out or using a procedure through executing, or implementing. Make use of, apply practice theory, solve problems, use information in
||Convert, Demonstrate, Differentiate
between, Discover, Discuss, Examine, Experiment, Prepare,
||1. Convert the following
into a real-world problem: velocity = dist./time. 2.
Experiment with batteries and bulbs to create circuits.
||Collection of items, diary, photographs, sculpture, illustration
Breaking material into constituent parts, determining how the parts relate to one another and to an overall structure or purpose through differentiating, organizing, and attributing. Take concepts apart, break them down, analyze structure, recognize assumptions and poor
logic, evaluate relevancy
||Classify, Determine, Discriminate,
Form generalizations, Put into categories, Illustrate,
Select, Survey, Take apart, Transform
||1. Illustrate examples of
two earthquake types. 2. Dissect a crayfish and
examine the body parts.
||Graph, survey, diagram, chart, questionnaire, report
Making judgments based on criteria and standards through checking and critiquing. Set standards, judge using standards, evidence, rubrics, accept or reject on
basis of criteria
||Argue, Award, Critique, Defend,
Interpret, Judge, Measure, Select, Test, Verify
||1. Defend or negate the
statement: "Nature takes care of itself." 2.
Judge the value of requiring students to take earth
||Letters, group with discussion panel, court trial, survey, self-evaluation, value, allusions
Putting elements together to form a coherent or functional whole; reorganizing elements into a new pattern or structure through generating, planning, or producing. Put things togther; bring together various parts; write theme, present speech, plan experiment, put
information together in a new & creative way
||Synthesize, Arrange, Blend, Create, Deduce,
Devise, Organize, Plan, Present, Rearrange, Rewrite
||1. Create a demonstration
to show various chemical properties. 2. Devise a
method to teach others about magnetism.
||Article, radio show, video, puppet show, inventions, poetry, short story
Revised Bloom's Taxonomy site, Mary Forehand, University of Georgia
Revised Bloom's Taxonomy site, Richard C. Overbaugh & Lynn Schultz, Old Dominion University