Science Computer Review
Volume 26, No. 1
Symposium on Privacy. Trust and Identity Issues for Ambient Intelligence and Ubiquitous
Privacy, trust and identity issues for ubiquitous computing / Linda
Little / pp. 3-5.
Ubiquitous Computing: Trust issues for a ‘healthy’ society /
Elizabeth Sillence & Pam Briggs / pp. pp. 6-12.
Abstract: The notion of Ubiquitous Computing (Ubicomp) has important implications for healthcare. Ubicomp scenarios involving the rapid communication of information between interested parties assume that health consumers will be willing to place their trust in agents rather than physicians, but are these assumptions reasonable? This paper discusses what is known about the role of trust in healthcare and ways in which the trust relationship has changed with the impact of new technologies. Differences between the current, predominantly web based environment and that of Ubicomp are highlighted in relation to healthcare. A key point to note is the move away from consumers making their own trust judgements towards a scenario in which these decisions become the domain of intelligent agents.
Keywords: trust, health, ubiquitous computing, internet, scenarios
An Organizational View of Pervasive Computing: Policy Implications
for Information Exchange / John Karat & Clare-Marie Karat / pp. 13-19.
Investigating privacy attitudes and behavior in relation to
personalization / Evelien van de Garde - Perik, Panos Markopoulos, Boris de
Ruyter, Berry Eggen, Wijnand IJsselsteijn / pp. 20-43.
E-voting in an ubicomp world: Trust, privacy and social implications
/ Linda Little, Tim Storer, Pam Briggs & Ishbel Duncan / pp. 44-59.
Abstract: The advances made in technology have unchained the user from the desktop into interactions where access is anywhere, anytime. In addition, the introduction of ubiquitous computing (ubicomp) will see further changes in how we interact with technology and also socially. Ubicomp evokes a near future in which humans will be surrounded by 'always-on', unobtrusive, interconnected intelligent objects where information is exchanged seamlessly. This seamless exchange of information has vast social implications, in particular the protection and management of personal information. This research project investigates the concepts of trust and privacy issues specifically related to the exchange of e-voting information when using a ubicomp type system.
Keywords: Ubiquitous computing, e-voting, privacy, trust, usability
Privacy in the Age of Transparency: The New Vulnerability of the
Individual / Maya Gadzheva / pp. 60-74.
Abstract: In an ambient intelligent (AmI) environment with its unlimited collection of data it will be difficult (if not impossible) for users to maintain control over data generation, exchange, transfer and use, and to achieve unobservability and anonymity. Obtaining consent might not be feasible for the constant need for collection and exchange of incredible amount of data. In most cases individuals are not aware that profiling is done, how it works, what profiles are being compiled and what decisions may result from these profiles. Due to the overflow of information users cannot exercise their right to correct and/or erase, rectify or amend their data. In the future, computing capabilities will be embedded in potentially every object or device and consumers cannot maintain knowledge of all data controllers that have some of their data, let alone hold them accountable for non-compliance with the fair information principles. The present-day privacy legislation has several weaknesses if confronted with the AmI environment which could lead to the need for new principles on which to base new regulations, to take account of the changed context.
Keywords: ambient intelligence, privacy, surveillance, transparency, profiling
Between extreme rejection and cautious acceptance – consumers'
reactions to RFID-based information services in retail / Matthias Rothensee & Sarah Spiekermann / pp. 75-86.
Abstract: RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) is one of the most important technologies supporting the development of ambient intelligence. It is currently being introduced in supply chain management, but is planned to be broadened in application to individual products, enabling myriad RFID-based services on retailers' shop floors and in the after-sales domain. However, embedding chips in every-day products has stirred a considerable debate about people's privacy. So far it is unclear what the attitudes of people towards privacy and its protection in ambient intelligence are. In the same way it is unclear whether these attitudes will impact the reputation of the retailer and acceptance of RFID-based information services. This paper presents two empirical studies with 642 participants who saw an introductory film about RFID and subsequently evaluated the technology, the services it enables and potential privacy protection mechanisms. The results show that people are moderately privacy aware and that their privacy awareness is negatively related to their estimated acceptance of the service. Furthermore, a group of "extreme rejecters" is identified, which hold highly negative attitudes towards RFID and significantly bias group means. The characteristics of this group are explored and technical as well as organizational privacy protection measures are evaluated.
Keywords: RFID, ambient intelligence, retail, reputation, privacy enhancing technology
Enhancing privacy in public spaces through crossmodal displays / Han
Cao, Patrick Olivier & Daniel Jackson / pp. 87 - 102,
Abstract: We introduce the notion of a crossmodal display as a proposal for enhancing the privacy of public information displays. The selection of appropriate display technology and interaction techniques relies upon an understanding of the public-private nature of information and the spaces from which it is accessed. The crossmodal display framework supports multiple users simultaneously accessing information that contains both public and personal elements. Crossmodal displays are multi-user interfaces that facilitate the efficient public access of personalized information, while maintaining the anonymity of each user in physical public spaces. Based on psychological theories of crossmodal attention which characterize human capabilities for matching information received through different modalities, the framework takes advantage of both public displays and mobile devices through the use of peripheral cues, and allows information personalization in public space. Two example systems are presented, in the first individuals access situated ambient displays of directions to destinations, and in the second a structured combination of cues is used to provide access to information board displays. The configuration and implications for privacy of both systems is introduced and analyzed within the wider context of access to public information displays in pervasive computing.
Keywords: Privacy, trust, pervasive computing, public displays, crossmodal displays
Understanding the influence of the users’ context in AmI / Anxo
Cereijo Roibás / pp. 103 - 188.
Abstract: This paper explores the use of ethnographies to understand the contextual influence on the user experience of ambient intelligent (AmI) systems in public environments. To do this, consolidated and experimental field studies to explore how users interact in real contexts with pervasive systems are discussed. The scope is to analyze, in a holistic way, how the system integrates into the users' physical and social environment and can be responsive to their emotions and feelings. These studies, as part of a Participatory Design approach can potentially contribute to enhance the reliability and relevance of the results.
Keywords: Ambient deployments, pervasive interactive systems, user experience, trust, security, privacy, context awareness, intelligent objects.
Government Policy and
Program Impacts on Technology Development,. Transfer
and Commercialization, by P. Kimball, William S.
Piper, and Walter W. Wymer, eds. / Reviewed by Kames Piecowye
Information Economy Report
2006: The Development Perspective, by Peter
Frohler, Coordinator, UNCTAD / Reviewed by J. Ramon Gil-Garcia
Online Learning and
Teaching in Higher Education, by Shirley Bach,
Philip Haynes, and Jennifer Lewis-Smith / Reviewed by Teresa Sancho
in European and South African Cities. The Cases of Barcelona, Cape Town, Eindhoven, Johannesburg, Manchester, Tampere, The Hague and Venice: by Leo van den Berg, Andre van der Meer, Willem van Winden &
Paulus Woets /
Reviewed by Carlos Nunes Silva
and Practice, by D. R. Fraser Taylor / Reviewed by
T. R. Carr